Vegetables

AUSVEG represents the biosecurity interests of vegetable and potato producers and the industry. They are members of Plant Health Australia and signatories to the Emergency Plant Pest Response Deed. Their responsibilities include:

  • biosecurity planning and implementation at the national and farm levels
  • liaising with federal and state governments on trade issues
  • funding and supporting biosecurity initiatives
  • participating in national committees and response efforts in an emergency.

Industry overview

In 2018–19, vegetable and potato production was valued at $2.6 billion (LVP). Major crops include potatoes, carrots and lettuce. Potato production alone was valued at $659 million (LVP). Exports of vegetables, including potatoes, were valued at $292 million.

Australia’s diverse climate and soils accommodate vegetable cultivation in all states and territories, ensuring a constant supply of fresh vegetables. Australian growers provide the majority of fresh vegetables consumed in Australia, and an increasing amount of fresh vegetables are consumed overseas.

The Australian vegetable industry is committed to building its capacity to respond to potential biosecurity threats. The employment of two full-time biosecurity officers, a tomato potato psyllid national coordinator and a potato pest surveillance officer allows the industry to participate in a range of biosecurity related initiatives.

In 2020, the biosecurity officers visited numerous growing regions in Australia including Bundaberg in Queensland, Katherine and Darwin in Northern Territory, Southern Tablelands in New South Wales, and the Lockyer Valley in Queensland. They held a series of regional biosecurity awareness seminars in these regions and visited 18 individual farms. Due to Covid-19, further farm visits were not possible after mid-March. Instead, the officers conducted extensive grower consultation and interview sessions by telephone and Zoom. They also ran more than 10 biosecurity webinars and developed several videos and podcasts. Recordings of these are available at ausveg.com.au

The biosecurity officers also participated in technical committee, consultation and project development meetings with the DAWE, and engaged with state government departments, other industry bodies and PHA. They also facilitated a Melbourne-based pilot program that focused on exotic plant pest awareness in urban environments. Officers engaged with community gardeners and urban farmers, raising awareness of exotic plant pests and reporting protocols.

In 2020, the National Potato Biosecurity Surveillance Strategy was finalised, which involved significant engagement with potato growers, processors, seed suppliers and certifiers, industry bodies, the Australian Government and governments in Western Australia, New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Queensland.

Annual value of vegetable production, 2008–19

Distribution of vegetable production by state and territory, 2018–19 (based on LVP)

 

Biosecurity planning provides a mechanism for the vegetable industry, government and other relevant stakeholders to assess current biosecurity practices and future biosecurity needs. Planning identifies procedures that can be put in place to reduce the chance of pests reaching our borders or minimise the impact if a pest incursion occurs.

The Biosecurity Plan for the Vegetable Industry outlines key threats to the industry, risk mitigation plans, identification and categorisation of exotic pests and contingency plans. For a copy, please contact PHA on 02 6215 7700 or email [email protected]


The Farm Biosecurity Manual for the Northern Adelaide Plains Vegetable Growers contains information to help producers to implement biosecurity on-farm.

Manuals usually contain an overview of biosecurity, fact sheets to identify the high priority pests of a crop, tips on crop management, and how to manage people, vehicles and equipment to minimise biosecurity risks. Manuals also contain a self-assessment checklist, and templates to record pest surveillance records and visitors.


An integral part of the Biosecurity Induction Manual for Bundaberg Horticultural Farms is the 'Induction and farm biosecurity risk checklist'.

More information about on-farm biosecurity for both plant and livestock producers is available from the Farm Biosecurity website.

 


The Exotic Pest Identification and Surveillance Guide for Tropical Horticulture was developed with funding from the Australia Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources.

Inspecting crops for signs of new pests is one way growers can protect Australia’s plant industries from exotic pests, as early detection and reporting improves the chances of successfully containing or eradicating new pests. The guide is in two sections:

• Biosecurity and surveillance
• Identification of key exotic pests.

Fact sheets and web links about the pollination of vegetables are listed below. Please be aware that some of the information was developed overseas, and environmental and seasonal variations may occur.

Vegetables for seed pollination fact sheet, The Pollination Program (Agrifutures Australia and Hort Innovation)

Capsicum pollination fact sheet, The Pollination Program (Agrifutures Australia and Hort Innovation)

Cucurbits pollination fact sheet, The Pollination Program (Agrifutures Australia and Hort Innovation)

Crop pollination requirements (including cantaloupe, cucumber, squash and other vegetable crops), the University of Georgia

Carrot seed profile, Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment

Bee pollination of cucurbit crops, University of Nebraska

Honey bee pollination of cantaloupe, cucumber and watermelon, University of California

Pumpkin and squash production, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

Exotic pests (not in Australia)

The following is a list of high priority exotic pests of vegetables. These pests were identified during the development of the Industry Biosecurity Plan for the Vegetable Industry in consultation with industry, government and scientists. They have been assessed as high priority pests based on their potential to enter, establish, and spread in Australia (eg environmental factors, host range, vectors) and the cost to industry of control measures.

PHA has a range of fact sheets, contingency plans and diagnostic protocols relevant to these pests. Pest risk review documents are also available for some pests. Please contact PHA on 02 6215 7700 or email [email protected] for more information.

Endorsed National Diagnostic Protocols are available from the National Plant Biosecurity Diagnostic Network webpage.

Common name Scientific name EPPRD Category Fact sheet Contingency plan Diagnostic protocol
Allium leaf miner Phytomyza gymnostoma FS
American serpentine leaf miner Liriomyza trifolii FS FS FS CP DP
Banded leaf and sheath spot of maize Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii CP
Bean seed fly Delia florilega FS
Black bean aphid Aphis fabae FS CP CP
Brown-marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys FS FS FS CP
Bud necrosis disease Groundnut bud necrosis virus (Tospovirus)
Bulb mite Rhizoglyphus setosus
Carambola fruit fly Bactrocera carambolae FS FS FS FS DP DP
Carrot cyst nematode Heterodera carotae
Carrot rust fly Psila rosae FS
Chickpea cyst nematode Heterodera ciceri CP
CLso | Zebra chip Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum 2 FS FS CP DP
False codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta syn Cryptophlebia leucotreta 2 FS CP
Fijian fruit fly Bactrocera passiflorae FS DP DP
Giant African snails Achatina fulica and Achatina achatina FSFSCP
Late wilt of maize Harpophora maydis CP
Leaf spot of field pea Alternaria humicola CP
Lesser bulb fly Eumerus strigatus FS
Melon fruit fly Zeugodacus cucurbitae FS DP DP
New Guinea fruit fly Bactrocera trivialis 3 FS FS DP DP
Onion fly Delia antiqua FS
Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis 2 FS FS FS FS FS FS FS DP DP
Potato late blight (exotic strains) Phytophthora infestans (A2 mating type and exotic strains of A1 mating type) FS
Root knot nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii syn. Meloidogyne mayaguensis FS
Silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (exotic strains) FSFS
Tomato leaf miner (Liriomyza bryoniae) Liriomyza bryoniae FS CP CP
Tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta) Tuta absoluta FS
Vegetable leaf miner Liriomyza sativae 3 FS FS FS FS FS FS FSCP
Watermelon bud necrosis Watermelon bud necrosis virus (Tospovirus)
Western plant bug Lygus hesperus FS

Other pests

The following is a list of documents for other exotic and endemic pests of vegetables. Please note that this is not a complete list of pests: rather it includes pests for which documents exist in the Pest Information Document Database.

Some of the documents presented here are not  tailored to the vegetable industry and are included for information only.

Common name Scientific name EPPRD Category Fact sheet Contingency plan Diagnostic protocol
Bacterial ring rot Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus 3 FS
Bacterial wilt Ralstonia solanacearum, race 3 (exotic strains)
Bakanae Gibberella fujikuroi CP
Banana spider mite Tetranychus piercei 4 FS FS
Bean weevil Acanthoscelides argillaceus FS
Beet pseudo-yellows virus Beet pseudo-yellows virus (Closterovirus) CP
Blue-striped nettle grub Parasa lepida FS
Brassica pod midge Dasineura brassicae CP
Broad bean mottle virus Broad bean mottle virus (Bromovirus)
Broad bean stain virus Broad bean stain virus (Comovirus)
Broad bean true mosaic virus Broad bean true mosaic virus (Comovirus)
Brown rot Monilinia fructigena 3 FS FS FS
Bruchids Multiple species in the Acanthoscelides, Bruchus, Bruchidius, Callosobruchus, Caryedon and Zabrotes genera FS
Cabbage leaf miner Phytomyza rufipes FS
Cabbage seedpod weevil Ceutorhynchus obstrictus FS CP
Cassava spider mite Tetranychus truncatus FS
Coconut bug Amblypelta cocophaga FS
Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata 3 FS
Corn earworm Helicoverpa zea CP
Cotton aphid Aphis gossypii (exotic strains) FS
Currant-lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri FS
False codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta syn Cryptophlebia leucotreta 2 FS CP
Greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum FS
Grey pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes FS
Gypsy moths Lymantria dispar and Lymantria mathura FS FS FS CP
Impatiens necrotic ringspot virus Impatiens necrotic ringspot virus (Tospovirus) CP
Indian green jassid Amrasca devastans FS FS
Japanese beetle Popillia japonica FS
Leaf blight Botrytis squamosa FS
Leaf blotch of cereals Bipolaris spicifera CP
Leaf miners Multiple species in the Agromyza, Cerodontha, Chromatomyia, Liriomyza, Phytomyza and Pseudonapomyza genera FS FS FS FS FS FS CP CP CP
Lentil anthracnose Colletotrichum truncatum (lentil strain) FS CP
Lesser bulb fly Eumerus strigatus FS
Lettuce infectious yellows virus Lettuce infectious yellows virus (Crinivirus) CP
May beetle Phyllophaga spp. CP
Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata FS DP
Mediterranean pulse beetle Bruchus emarginatus FS
Melon thrips Thrips palmi FS
Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus FS
Omnivorous leaf roller Platynota stultana FS
Orange tortrix Argyrotaenia citrana syn A. franciscana FS
Pacific spider mite Tetranychus pacificus FS
Papaya mealy bug Paracoccus marginatus FS CP
Pea enation mosaic virus Pea enation mosaic virus (Enamovirus)
Pea leaf miner Chromatomyia horticola FS CP
Pea leaf weevil Sitona lineatus CP
Pepino mosaic virus Pepino mosaic virus (Potexvirus)
Poinsettia thrips Echinothrips americanus FS CP
Potato cyst nematode (golden) Globodera rostochiensis (exotic strains) 3
Potato cyst nematode (white or pale) Globodera pallida FS
Potato late blight (exotic strains) Phytophthora infestans (A2 mating type and exotic strains of A1 mating type) FS
Potato spindle tuber viroid Potato spindle tuber viroid (Pospiviroidae) (exotic strains) 3 FS
Potato virus Y Potato virus Y (Potyvirus) (exotic strains)
Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni FS DP
Rust of field pea Uromyces pisi (field pea strain) FS CP
Serpentine leaf miner Liriomyza huidobrensis FS FS FS FS CP
Southern corn rootworm Diabrotica undecimpunctata FS
Spotted stem borer Chilo partellus CP
Stewarts wilt of maize Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii FS
Strawberry spider mite Tetranychus turkestani FS
Tarnished plant bug Lygus lineolaris FS FS FS CP
Texas root rot Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (syn Phymatotrichum omnivorum) 2 FS FS
Tobacco etch virus Tobacco etch virus (Potyvirus) CP
Tomato black ring virus Tomato black ring virus (Nepovirus) FS
Tomato-potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli 3 FS FS CP
Tomato spotted wilt virus Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus) CP
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Begomovirus) CP
Verticillium wilt Verticillium dahliae (exotic defoliating strains) 3 FS
Western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera FS
Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis FS
Western plant bug Lygus hesperus FS