Citrus

Citrus Australia represents the biosecurity interests of citrus producers and the industry. They are members of Plant Health Australia and signatories to the Emergency Plant Pest Response Deed. Their responsibilities include:

  • biosecurity planning and implementation at the national and farm levels
  • liaising with federal and state governments on trade issues
  • funding and supporting biosecurity initiatives
  • participating in national committees and response efforts in an emergency.

Industry overview

In 2015–16, the citrus industry was valued at $568 million (LVP). It is Australia’s largest fresh fruit exporting industry by volume, with citrus exports (oranges, mandarins, lemons, limes and grapefruit) totalling 260,209 tonnes worth $427 million in 2017. Total production of citrus was estimated to be 750,000 tonnes, produced from about 26,000 hectares of citrus plantings nationally.

Major export markets include China, Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Indonesia, United Arab Emirates, Singapore, the United States and Thailand.

Citrus fruits are grown commercially throughout the Australian mainland excluding the ACT. Major growing areas include the Riverina in NSW; Central Burnett and Emerald in Queensland; Riverland in SA; and the Murray Valley in Victoria/NSW. Production also occurs in WA and there are a small number of plantings in the NT.

The Citrus Biosecurity Project, boosting the preparedness of the citrus industry for serious exotic pests, concluded in 2017. The outreach program was funded by Hort Innovation and jointly managed by PHA and Citrus Australia. A new project has commenced with a focus on coordinated surveillance for exotic pests.

The citrus industry is covered by version 3.0 of the citrus biosecurity plan and the Biosecurity Manual for Citrus Producers Version 2.0.

Annual value of citrus production, 2007–16

Distribution of citrus production by state and territory, 2015–16 (based on LVP)

Citrus industry biosecurity planIndustry Biosecurity Plan for the Citrus Industry

Biosecurity planning provides a mechanism for the citrus industry, government and other relevant stakeholders to assess current biosecurity practices and future biosecurity needs. Biosecurity planning identifies procedures that can be put in place to reduce the chance of pests reaching our borders or minimise the impact if a pest incursion occurs.

The Industry Biosecurity Plan for the Citrus Industry outlines key threats to the industry, risk mitigation plans, identification and categorisation of exotic pests and contingency plans. For a copy, please contact PHA on 02 6215 7700 or email admin@phau.com.au

Biosecurity Manual for Citrus ProducersBiosecurity Manual for Citrus Producers

The Biosecurity Manual for Citrus Producers contains information to help producers to implement biosecurity on-farm. Manuals usually contain an overview of biosecurity, fact sheets to identify the high priority pests of a crop, tips on crop management, and how to manage people, vehicles and equipment to minimise biosecurity risks. Manuals also contain a biosecurity self-assessment list, and templates to record pest surveillance records and visitors.

More information about on-farm biosecurity for both plant and livestock producers is available from the Farm Biosecurity website.

National Citrus Biosecurity Surveillance Strategy

The National Citrus Biosecurity Surveillance Strategy has been developed to provide a framework for national coordination and implementation of surveillance activities carried out by government and industry for exotic citrus pests and pests of market access concern.

The strategy's four Goals and twelve Actions form the basis of an implementation plan. The Actions aim to strengthen national surveillance efforts to detect incursions of exotic citrus pests and improve the understanding of pest status to support access to markets.

Citrus PostcardPostcard

Promotional item to support the exotic plant pest hotline 1800 084 881

Exotic pests (not in Australia)

The following is a list of high priority exotic pests of citrus. These pests were identified during the development of the Industry Biosecurity Plan for the Citrus Industry in consultation with industry, government and scientists. They have been assessed as high priority pests based on their potential to enter, establish, and spread in Australia (eg environmental factors, host range, vectors) and the cost to industry of control measures.

PHA has a range of fact sheets, contingency plans and diagnostic protocols relevant to these pests. Pest risk review documents are also available for some pests. Please contact PHA on 02 6215 7700 or email admin@phau.com.au for more information.

Endorsed National Diagnostic Protocols are available from the National Plant Biosecurity Diagnostic Network webpage.

Common name Scientific name EPPRD Category Fact sheet Contingency plan Diagnostic protocol
African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae FS CP
Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri 3 FS CP
Bean thrips Caliothrips fasciatus FS
Carambola fruit fly Bactrocera carambolae FS FS FS FS DP
Citrus canker Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri 2 FS DP
Citrus fruit borer Citripestis sagittiferella FS
Citrus leprosis disease Citrus leprosis virus (Unassigned)
Fruit fly (Bactrocera invadens) Bactrocera invadens DP
Fruit fly (Bactrocera kandiensis) Bactrocera kandiensis DP
Fruit fly (Bactrocera occipitalis) Bactrocera occipitalis FS DP
Glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis FS FS FS FS FS CP CP DP
Huanglongbing/Citrus greening (African strain) Candidatus Liberibacter africanus FS CP
Huanglongbing/Citrus greening (American strain) Candidatus Liberibacter americanus FS CP
Huanglongbing/Citrus greening (Asiatic strain) Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus 2 FS CP DP
Mandarin stem-pitting Citrus tristeza virus (Closterovirus) (mandarin stem-pitting strain) FS
Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens FS DP
New Guinea fruit fly Bactrocera trivialis FS FS DP
Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis 2 FS FS FS FS FS FS DP
Papaya fruit fly Bactrocera papayae 2 FS FS FS FS DP
Philippine fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis 2 FS DP
Stubborn Spiroplasma citri FS
Xylella fastidiosa Xylella fastidiosa including X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and pauca 2 FS FS FS FS FS CP DP

Other pests

The following is a list of documents for other exotic and endemic pests of the citrus industry. Please note that this is not a complete list of pests: rather it includes pests for which documents exist in the Pest Information Document Database.

Some of the documents presented here are not tailored to the citrus industry and are included for information only.

Common name Scientific name EPPRD Category Fact sheet Contingency plan Diagnostic protocol
Blossom thrips Frankliniella insularis FS
Blue-striped nettle grub Parasa lepida FS
California citrus thrips Scirtothrips citri FS
Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa FS DP
Citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi FS
Citrus longicorn beetle Anoplophora chinensis FS CP
Coconut bug Amblypelta cocophaga FS
Exotic thrips Caliothrips, Frankliniella and Scirtothrips genera FS
False codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta syn Cryptophlebia leucotreta 2 FS CP
Fijian fruit fly (Bactrocera passiflorae) Bactrocera passiflorae FS DP
Florida flower thrips Frankliniella bispinosa FS
Mal secco Phoma tracheiphila 3 FS
Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata FS DP
Melon fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae FS DP
Navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella 3 FS
Omnivorous leaf roller Platynota stultana FS
Orange tortrix Argyrotaenia citrana FS
Pacific spider mite Tetranychus pacificus FS
Papaya mealy bug Paracoccus marginatus FS CP
Peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata FS DP
Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni FS DP
South African citrus thrips Scirtothrips aurantii 3 FS
Strawberry spider mite Tetranychus turkestani FS
Sweet orange scab Elsinoe australis FS
Texas root rot Phymatotrichum omnivorum 2 FS FS