The Almond Board of Australia represents the biosecurity interests of almond producers and the industry. They are members of Plant Health Australia and signatories to the Emergency Plant Pest Response Deed. Their responsibilities include:

  • biosecurity planning and implementation at the national and farm levels
  • liaising with federal and state governments on trade issues
  • funding and supporting biosecurity initiatives
  • participating in national committees and response efforts in an emergency.

Industry overview

In 2018–19, almond production was valued at $720 million (LVP), with exports valued at $675 million.

The domestic market for almonds continues to grow strongly at around 10 per cent per year due to an increasing move to plant-based diets and the health benefits of nuts. The industry has focused on export market development, with three tonnes of almonds being shipped overseas for every tonne consumed in Australia. Historically, India has been the largest export market, but sales to China continue to increase rapidly, making it one of the major destinations for Australian almonds.

The industry has been expanding rapidly since 2016 with additional hectares bringing the total industry orchard area to just over 53,000 hectares.

The 2020 production was 111,100 tonnes, however as recent plantings reach full maturity the industry’s productive capacity will be approximately 170,000 tonnes.

Nonpareil continues to be the most popular variety with several pollinator varieties such as Carmel, Price and Monterey planted to overlap the flowering period of Nonpareil to achieve good nut set.

The Australian almond industry depends on honey bees for pollination with more than 230,000 hives required during the pollination season. The almond blossoms provide one of the first natural sources of food for bees each spring.

Annual value of almond production, 2007–19

Distribution of almond production by state and territory, 2018–19 (based on LVP)



Tree nut IBPBiosecurity Plan for the Tree Nut Industry

Biosecurity planning provides a mechanism for the almond industry, government and other relevant stakeholders to assess current biosecurity practices and future biosecurity needs. Planning identifies procedures that can be put in place to reduce the chance of pests reaching our borders or minimise the impact if a pest incursion occurs.

The Biosecurity Plan for the Tree Nut Industry outlines key threats to the industry, risk mitigation plans, identification and categorisation of exotic pests and contingency plans. For a copy, please contact PHA on 02 6215 7700 or email

Almond Biosecurity ManualOrchard Biosecurity Manual for the Almond Industry

The Orchard Biosecurity Manual for the Almond Industry contains information to help producers to implement biosecurity on-farm. Manuals usually contain an overview of biosecurity, fact sheets to identify the high priority pests of a crop, tips on crop management, and how to manage people, vehicles and equipment to minimise biosecurity risks.

Manuals also contain a biosecurity self-assessment list, and templates to record pest surveillance records and visitors.

More information about on-farm biosecurity for both plant and livestock producers is available from the Farm Biosecurity website.


Promotional item to support the exotic plant pest hotline 1800 084 881.

Fact sheets and web links about the pollination of this crop are listed below. Please be aware that some of the information was developed overseas, and environmental and seasonal variations may occur.

Almond pollination fact sheet, The Pollination Program (Agrifutures Australia and Hort Innovation)

Almond pollination basics 101, Almond Board of Australia

Better almond pollination, Almond Board of Australia

Honey bee best management practices for Australian Almonds, Almond Board of Australia

Honey bee best management practices for California Almonds, California Almonds

Honey bee best management practices, California Almonds

Honey bee best management practices – A quick guide for growers, Almond Board of Australia

Honey bee best management practices – A quick guide for spray operators, Almond Board of Australia

The Almond Doctor

Exotic pests (not in Australia)

The following is a list of high priority exotic pests of almonds. These pests were identified during the development of the Biosecurity Plan for the Tree Nut Industry in consultation with industry, government and scientists. They have been assessed as high priority pests based on their potential to enter, establish, and spread in Australia (eg environmental factors, host range, vectors) and the cost to industry of control measures.

PHA has a range of fact sheets, contingency plans and diagnostic protocols relevant to these pests. Pest risk review documents are also available for some pests. Please contact PHA on 02 6215 7700 or email for more information.

Endorsed National Diagnostic Protocols are available from the National Plant Biosecurity Diagnostic Network webpage.

Common name Scientific name EPPRD Category Fact sheet Contingency plan Diagnostic protocol
Green stink bug Chinavia hilaris (syn. Acrosternum hilare, Pentatoma hilaris, Chinavia hilare, Nezara hilaris) FS
Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium 2 FS FS CP
Leaf footed bug Leptoglossus clypealis FS
Navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella 3 FS
Tropilaelaps mites Tropilaelaps clareae and Tropilaelaps mercedessae FS FS
Varroa mites Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni FS FS
Verticillium wilt Verticillium dahliae (exotic defoliating strains) 3 FS
Western conifer seed bug Leptoglossus occidentalis FS
Western leaf footed bug Leptoglossus zonatus FS
Xylella fastidiosa Xylella fastidiosa including X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and pauca 2 FS FS FS FS FS FS CP CPDP

Other pests

The following is a list of documents for other exotic and endemic pests of the almond industry. Please note that this is not a complete list of pests: rather it includes pests for which documents exist in the Pest Information Document Database.

Some of the documents presented here are not tailored to the almond industry and are included for information only.

Common name Scientific name EPPRD Category Fact sheet Contingency plan Diagnostic protocol
Almond kernel shrivel Peach yellow leafroll phytoplasma FS
Almond seed wasp Eurytoma amygdali FS
European stone fruit yellows Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum 3 FS
Filbertworm Cydia latiferreana FS
Glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis FS FS FS FS FS FS FS CP CP
Gypsy moths Lymantria dispar and Lymantria mathura FS FS FS CP
Hyperplastic canker Pseudomonas amygaldi FS
Oblique-banded leaf roller Choristoneura rosaceana FS
Pacific spider mite Tetranychus pacificus FS
Peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella FS
Peach X disease Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni 3 FS
Phomopsis canker Phomopsis amygdali FS
Plum pox virus Plum pox virus (Potyvirus) 2 FS FS CP
Raspberry ringspot virus Raspberry ringspot virus (Nepovirus) FS
Strawberry spider mite Tetranychus turkestani FS
Ten-lined June beetle Polyphylla decemlineata FS
Texas root rot Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (syn Phymatotrichum omnivorum) 2 FS FS
Tomato black ring virus Tomato black ring virus (Nepovirus) FS
Tomato ringspot virus Tomato ringspot virus (Nepovirus) FS