Apples and pears

Apple and Pear Australia (APAL) represents the biosecurity interests of apple and pear producers and the industry. They are members of Plant Health Australia and signatories to the Emergency Plant Pest Response Deed. Their responsibilities include:

  • biosecurity planning and implementation at the national and farm levels
  • liaising with federal and state governments on trade issues
  • funding and supporting biosecurity initiatives
  • participating in national committees and response efforts in an emergency.

Industry overview

There are approximately 550 commercial apple and/or pear grower businesses in Australia.

The major production areas include the Goulburn Valley, Gippsland, Yarra Valley and the Mornington Peninsula in Victoria; Stanthorpe in Queensland; Batlow and Orange in New South Wales; the Huon Valley and Tamar Valley in Tasmania; the Adelaide Hills in South Australia; and Donnybrook, Manjimup and the Perth Hills in Western Australia.

The four most common apple cultivars are Cripps Pink (Pink Lady™), Gala, Fuji and Granny Smith. Areas of Cripps Red (Sundowner™), Red Delicious and Golden Delicious are declining. A number of newer club apples such as Jazz™, Kanzi™, Envy™, Smitten™, Rockit™ and Bravo™ have been increasing in production recently. Australia’s main apple export markets are Europe, Papua New Guinea, Hong Kong and Indonesia.

Biosecurity Plan for the Apple and Pear Industry

Biosecurity planning provides a mechanism for the apple and pear industry, government and other relevant stakeholders to assess current biosecurity practices and future biosecurity needs. Planning identifies procedures that can be put in place to reduce the chance of pests reaching our borders or minimise the impact if a pest incursion occurs.

The Biosecurity Plan for the Apple and Pear Industry outlines key threats to the industry, risk mitigation plans, identification and categorisation of exotic pests and contingency plans. For a copy, please contact PHA on 02 6215 7700 or email

Orchard Biosecurity Manual for the Apple and Pear Industry

The Orchard Biosecurity Manual for the Apple and Pear Industry contains information to help producers to implement biosecurity on-farm. Manuals usually contain an overview of biosecurity, fact sheets to identify the high priority pests of a crop, tips on crop management, and how to manage people, vehicles and equipment to minimise biosecurity risks. Manuals also contain a biosecurity self-assessment list, and templates to record pest surveillance records and visitors.

More information about on-farm biosecurity for both plant and livestock producers is available from the Farm Biosecurity website.

Apple & Pear PostcardPostcard

Promotional item to support the exotic plant pest hotline 1800 084 881

Fact sheets and web links about the pollination of this crop are listed below. Please be aware that some of the information was developed overseas, and environmental and seasonal variations may occur.

Apple pollination fact sheet, The Pollination Program (Agrifutures Australia and Hort Innovation)

Pear pollination fact sheet, The Pollination Program (Agrifutures Australia and Hort Innovation)

Pollination of apples by honey bees, NSW Department of Primary Industries

Apple pollination, Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia

Crop pollination requirements, The University of Georgia

Exotic pests (not in Australia)

The following is a list of high priority exotic pests of apples and pears. These pests were identified during the development of the Biosecurity Plan for the Apple and Pear Industry in consultation with industry, government and scientists. They have been assessed as high priority pests based on their potential to enter, establish, and spread in Australia (eg environmental factors, host range, vectors) and the cost to industry of control measures.

PHA has a range of fact sheets, contingency plans and diagnostic protocols relevant to these pests. Pest risk review documents are also available for some pests. Please contact PHA on 02 6215 7700 or email for more information.

Endorsed National Diagnostic Protocols are available from the National Plant Biosecurity Diagnostic Network webpage.

Common name Scientific name EPPRD Category Fact sheet Contingency plan Diagnostic protocol
Apple leaf curling midge Dasineura mali
Apple maggot Rhagoletis pomonella FS FS DP
Asiatic brown rot Monilinia polystroma
Brown rot Monilinia fructigena 3 FS FS FS DP
Brown-marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys FS FS FS CP
European canker Neonectria ditissima FS FS DP
Fire blight Erwinia amylovora 2 FS CP
Spongy moths Lymantria dispar and Lymantria mathura FS FS FS CP DP
Manchurian fruit moth Cydia inopinata syn Grapholita inopinata
Monilinia leaf blight (blossom wilt) Monilinia mali
Nun moth Lymantria monacha FS
Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis 2 FS FS FS FS FS FS FS DP DP
Peach fruit moth (small peach fruit borer) Carposina sasakii
Rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea FS
Spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii FS FS FS FS
Tropilaelaps mites Tropilaelaps clareae and Tropilaelaps mercedessae FS FS
Varroa mites Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni FS FS

Other pests

The following is a list of documents for other exotic and endemic pests of the apple and pear industry. Please note that this is not a complete list of pests: rather it includes pests for which documents exist in the Pest Information Document Database.

Some of the documents presented here are not tailored to the apple and pear industry and are included for information only.

Common name Scientific name EPPRD Category Fact sheet Contingency plan Diagnostic protocol
Apple proliferation Apple proliferation phytoplasma FS
Black stem blight Erwinia pyrifoliae FS
Blister spot of apples Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans
Brown rot Monilinia fructigena 3 FS FS FS
Cassava spider mite Tetranychus truncatus FS
Cedar apple rust Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae FS
Citrus longicorn beetle Anoplophora chinensis FS CP
Green headed leaf roller Planotortrix excessana FS
Japanese beetle Popillia japonica FS
Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata FS DP
Oblique-banded leaf roller Choristoneura rosaceana FS
Omnivorous leaf roller Platynota stultana FS
Orange tortrix Argyrotaenia citrana syn A. franciscana FS
Pacific spider mite Tetranychus pacificus FS
Peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata FS DP
Pear fruit moth Numonia pirivorella 3 FS
Pear psyllid Cacopsylla pyricola FS
Plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar 2 FS FS
Strawberry spider mite Tetranychus turkestani FS
Texas root rot Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (syn Phymatotrichum omnivorum) 2 FS FS
Tomato ringspot virus Tomato ringspot virus (Nepovirus) FS
Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis FS
Xylella fastidiosa Xylella fastidiosa including X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and pauca 2 FS FS FS FS FS FS CP