MacadamiasThe Australian Macadamia Society represents the biosecurity interests of macadamia producers and the industry. They are members of Plant Health Australia and signatories to the Emergency Plant Pest Response Deed. Their responsibilities include:

  • biosecurity planning and implementation at the national and farm levels
  • liaising with federal and state governments on trade issues
  • funding and supporting biosecurity initiatives
  • participating in national committees and response efforts in an emergency.

Industry overview

In 2015–16, macadamia production was valued at $198 million (LVP) and in 2017 the value of production was $272 million. Annual production from approximately 700 growers on 22,000 hectares is approximately 50,000 tonnes in-shell or 15,000 tonnes of kernel.

The majority of plantings are varieties of Macadamia integrifolia. Of these about 80 per cent are Hawaiian varieties with the remainder being Australian. New Australian-bred varieties are likely to be released in the next few years. Harvest commences in March and runs through to August.

Australian macadamia production stretches from Coffs Harbour on the NSW north coast to Mackay on the north Queensland coast. The majority of macadamia plantings are in northern NSW, Bundaberg and south east Queensland. The northern rivers region of NSW and Bundaberg each comprise about 40 per cent of production. Bundaberg has the fastest growth in production and is now the largest growing region in Australia.

Approximately 70 per cent of the crop is exported, principally to Europe, the United States, Japan and other Asian countries as kernels and to China as nut-in-shell. Australia is currently the world’s largest producer of macadamia kernels. South Africa and Kenya are the other major producers.

In order to encourage biosecurity awareness within the industry, approximately 70 per cent of orchards employ professional pest scouts and the Australian Macadamia Society convenes an annual pest scout forum where pest pressures for the previous season are reviewed and any new pest and disease sightings reported.

The macadamia industry is covered by version 3.0 of the nut industry biosecurity plan.

Annual value of macadamia production, 2007–16

Distribution of macadamia production by state and territory, 2015–16 (based on LVP)

Tree nut IBPBiosecurity Plan for the Tree Nut Industry

Biosecurity planning provides a mechanism for the macadamia industry, government and other relevant stakeholders to assess current biosecurity practices and future biosecurity needs. Planning identifies procedures that can be put in place to reduce the chance of pests reaching our borders or minimise the impact if a pest incursion occurs.

The Biosecurity Plan for the Tree Nut Industry outlines key threats to the industry, risk mitigation plans, identification and categorisation of exotic pests and contingency plans. For a copy, please contact PHA on 02 6215 7700 or email [email protected].


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Exotic pests (not in Australia)

The following is a list of high priority exotic pests of macadamias. These pests were identified during the development of the Biosecurity Plan for the Tree Nut Industry in consultation with industry, government and scientists. They have been assessed as high priority pests based on their potential to enter, establish, and spread in Australia (eg environmental factors, host range, vectors) and the cost to industry of control measures.

PHA has a range of fact sheets, contingency plans and diagnostic protocols relevant to these pests. Pest risk review documents are also available for some pests. Please contact PHA on 02 6215 7700 or email [email protected] for more information.

Common name Scientific name EPPRD Category Fact sheet Contingency plan Diagnostic protocol
Sudden oak death Phytophthora ramorum 1 FS FS FS CP DP
Tropical nut borer Hypothenemus obscurus FS
Tropilaelaps mites Tropilaelaps clareae and Tropilaelaps mercedessae FS FS
Varroa mites Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni FS FS
Xylella fastidiosa Xylella fastidiosa including X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and pauca 2 FS FS FS FS FS FS CP DP

Other pests

The following is a list of documents for other exotic and endemic pests of the macadamia industry. Please note that this is not a complete list of pests: rather it includes pests for which documents exist in the Pest Information Document Database.

Some of the documents presented here are not  tailored to the macadamia industry and are included for information only.

Common name Scientific name EPPRD Category Fact sheet Contingency plan Diagnostic protocol
Black twig borer Xylosandrus compactus FS FS
False codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta syn Cryptophlebia leucotreta 2 FS CP
Glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis FS FS FS FS FS FS CP CP
Texas root rot Phymatotrichum omnivorum 2 FS FS