Macadamias

MacadamiasThe Australian Macadamia Society represents the biosecurity interests of macadamia producers and the industry. They are members of Plant Health Australia and signatories to the Emergency Plant Pest Response Deed. Their responsibilities include:

  • biosecurity planning and implementation at the national and farm levels
  • liaising with federal and state governments on trade issues
  • funding and supporting biosecurity initiatives
  • participating in national committees and response efforts in an emergency.

Industry overview

In 2013–14, macadamia production was valued at $108 million (LVP). There are around 18, 000 hectares planted with macadamias in Australia, comprising approximately 5.5 million trees. Annual production is approximately 45,000 tonnes in-shell or 15,000 tonnes of kernel.

The significant majority of plantings are varieties of Macadamia integrifolia. Of these about 80 per cent are Hawaiian selections with the remainder being Australian varieties. Harvest commences in March and runs through to August.

Australian macadamia production stretches from Coffs Harbour on the NSW north coast to Mackay on the north Queensland coast. The majority of macadamia plantings are in northern NSW and south east Queensland. The northern rivers region of NSW is the largest production area comprising about 45 per cent of production. The fastest growth in production is occurring in the Bundaberg area which currently represents around 35 per cent of production.

Approximately 70 per cent of the crop is exported, principally to Europe, USA, Japan, China and other Asian countries. Australia is currently the world’s largest producer of macadamia kernel and second largest producer overall. South Africa and Kenya are the other major producers.

In order to encourage biosecurity awareness within the industry, approximately 70 per cent of orchards employ professional pest scouts and the Australian Macadamia Society convenes an annual pest scout forum where pest pressures for the previous season are reviewed and any new pest and disease sightings reported.

Annual value of macadamia production 2007–14 (LVP)

Macadamias graph

Distribution of macadamia production by state and territory 2013–14 (based on LVP)

Macadamia pie chart

Tree nut IBPBiosecurity Plan for the Tree Nut Industry

Biosecurity planning provides a mechanism for the macadamia industry, government and other relevant stakeholders to assess current biosecurity practices and future biosecurity needs. Planning identifies procedures that can be put in place to reduce the chance of pests reaching our borders or minimise the impact if a pest incursion occurs.

The Biosecurity Plan for the Tree Nut Industry outlines key threats to the industry, risk mitigation plans, identification and categorisation of exotic pests and contingency plans. For a copy, please contact PHA on 02 6215 7700 or email admin@phau.com.au.

Macadamia-PostcardPostcard

Promotional item to support the exotic plant pest hotline 1800 084 881

Exotic pests (not in Australia)

The following is a list of high priority exotic pests of macadamias. These pests were identified during the development of the Biosecurity Plan for the Tree Nut Industry in consultation with industry, government and scientists. They have been assessed as high priority pests based on their potential to enter, establish, and spread in Australia (eg environmental factors, host range, vectors) and the cost to industry of control measures.

PHA has a range of fact sheets, contingency plans and diagnostic protocols relevant to these pests. Pest risk review documents are also available for some pests. Please contact PHA on 02 6215 7700 or email admin@phau.com.au for more information.

Common name Scientific name EPPRD Category Fact sheet Contingency plan Diagnostic protocol
Sudden oak death Phytophthora ramorum 1 FS FS CP DP
Tropical nut borer Hypothenemus obscurus FS
Tropilaelaps mites Tropilaelaps clareae and Tropilaelaps mercedessae FS
Varroa mite Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni FS
Xylella fastidiosa Xylella fastidiosa including X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and pauca 2 FS FS FS FS FS CP DP

Other pests

The following is a list of documents for other exotic and endemic pests of the macadamia industry. Please note that this is not a complete list of pests: rather it includes pests for which documents exist in the Pest Information Document Database.

Some of the documents presented here are not  tailored to the macadamia industry and are included for information only.

Common name Scientific name EPPRD Category Fact sheet Contingency plan Diagnostic protocol
Black twig borer Xylosandrus compactus FS
False codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta syn Cryptophlebia leucotreta 2 FS CP
Glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis FS FS FS FS FS CP
Texas root rot Phymatotrichum omnivorum 2 FS FS